Often materials are subject to an external force when they are used. Mechanical Engineers calculate those forces and material scientists how materials deform or break as a function of force, time, temperature, and other conditions. Materials scientists learn about these mechanical properties by testing materials.
Some of the important mechanical properties of the metals are Brittleness, Creep, Ductility, Elasticity, Fatigue, Hardness, Malleability, Plasticity, Resilience, Stiffness, Toughness, Yield strength. Above mechanical properties of metals are explained below in brief.
The tendency of material to fracture or fail upon the application of a relatively small amount of force, impact or shock.
When a metal is subjected to a constant force at a high temperature below its yield point, for a prolonged period of time, it undergoes a permanent deformation.
Ductility is the property by which a metal can be drawn into thin wires. It is determined by percentage elongation and percentage reduction in the area of metal.
Elasticity is the tendency of solid materials to return to their original shape after being deformed.
Fatigue is the of material weakening or breakdown of equipment subjected to stress, especially a repeated series of stresses.
Hardness is the ability of material to resist permanent change of shape caused by an external force.
Malleability is the property by which a metal can be rolled into thin sheets.
Plasticity is the property by which a metal retains its deformation permanently, when the external force applied on it is released.
Resilience is the ability of metal to absorb energy and resist soft and impact load.
When an external force is applied on metal, it develops an internal resistance. The internal resistance developed per unit area is called stress. Stiffness is the ability of metal to resist deformation under stress.
When a huge external force is applied on metal, the metal will experience a fracture. Toughness is the ability of metal to resist fracture.
The ability of metal to bear gradual progressive force without permanent deformation.